Title: “Surgeon's view” video capture in Orthopaedic Surgery
Author(s): Hamid Reza Seyyed Hosseinzadeh MD 1*, Morad Karimpour PhD 2, Alisina Shahi MD 3
1 Shahid Beheshti Medical University, Tehran, Iran 2 University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran 3 Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, USA
* Corresponding Author
Vol 2, Num 2, April 2015
Introduction:A high definition video recording of the surgical field from the surgeon's line of sight with minimal deviation from the natural flow of the surgery can be an invaluable asset for teaching purposes. The current article studies the feasibility of using a head mounted GoPro Hero3+ black edition camera for recording the surgeon's point of view in Orthopaedic surgeries.
Materials and Methods:The head mounted GoPro Hero3+ black edition (NASDAQ:GPRO Inc. San Mateo, CA) was used in excess of 200 Orthopaedic surgeries comprising of 100 Total Knee Arthroplasties, 60 Total Hip Arthroplasties, and 60 osteotomies. In all of the aforementioned cases, the camera was controlled using the GoPro App installed on an iPhone.
Conclusion:It was concluded that the recording technique serves as a very cost effective method of capturing invaluable footage of the surgery from the best possible angle, without disturbing the natural flow of the surgery. The only limiting factor was found to be the battery life of the camera which is not a problem for Arthroplasty surgeries, but the surgeon may consider having a replacement battery pack or a reserved camera in case of a prolonged surgery.
Keyword:Picture Capturing, Surgeon’s view, GoPro Hero 3+, Orthopaedics, A.10, A.12, A.13
Ever since the time of Hippocrates, physicians have sought for better ways of teaching their art to others and passing their knowledge through the generations. The oldest method of teaching yet the most effective technique is giving instructions during live operation. Additionally, drawings and written descriptions have made it possible for a much greater number of surgical students to learn from the greatest surgeons throughout history. Discovery of photography revolutionised the field of medical teaching as it made it possible to demonstrate case-studies with images rather than inaccurate drawings. In the latter part of the 20th century, documentation of a surgical procedure using still and motion picture was no longer considered as luxury.
With the recent advances in tele-communication, transmission of high quality live footage using both the Digital Video Transfer System (DVTS), and a web-based system has been used for broadcasting live surgeries and remote consultation purposes.[1,2] The value of surgical procedure broadcast in medical training was addressed by Sade.
With the increase in popularity of such broadcasts, and it essentially being an intrusion into patient-physician relationship, questions were raised regarding the ethical consideration of broadcasting a surgical procedure. This has resulted in a number of surgical associations including the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the American College of Surgeons completely banning the practice. Others have prepared guidelines that must be followed if a surgical procedure is to be broadcast live.[3,4]
More recently, with the availability of different types of Point-Of-View (POV) recording equipment such as the GoPro (NASDAQ:GPRO Inc. San Mateo, CA) and the Google glass (GOOGL Inc. Menlo Park, Ca) it has become possible to record the surgery from the surgeon's line of sight. These can both be used for live broadcast of the surgery or simply recording the surgery from the surgeon's point of view. However researchers tend to use the Google glass (GOOGL Inc. Menlo Park, Ca) mostly for live broadcast of their surgeries [5-7], whereas the GoPro (NASDAQ:GPRO Inc. San Mateo, CA) is mostly used offline and locally. Comparison of the two has been inconclusive as depending on the surgery, one may be superior to the other and vice versa.
The present work examines the utility of GoPro Hero3+ (NASDAQ:GPRO Inc. San Mateo, CA) for high-definition, surgeon’s view recordings of orthopaedic surgery.
Materials and Methods
A commercially available GoPro Hero3+ Black edition (NASDAQ:GPRO Inc. San Mateo, CA) action camera was assembled onto the purpose-made head-mount and was aligned to the surgeon's line of sight. The camera was controlled using the GoPro App installed on an iPhone and the wide angle setting was used.
The study adheres to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, and no ethics committee approval was obtained as this study does not change the surgical technique in any way.
The setup was used to record a total of 220 orthopaedic surgeries comprising of 100 total knee arthroplasties, 60 total hip arthroplasties, and 60 osteotomies.
The captured videos proved to be very valuable as they provided an undisrupted view of what the surgeon was looking at throughout the surgeries. Using alternative methods such as having a cameraman or a video camera within the surgical light, it cannot be ensured that the camera is aligned with the surgeon's line of sight at all times.
In the total knee arthroplasties, the technique provided a superior view of the surgical field, particularly when bony landmarks were to be identified (as shown in ). In total hip arthroplasties however, the method resulted in views that were not possible using the other methods unless the surgery was interrupted (Figures 2 and 3). This is due to the depth of surgical field and limited exposure of the acetabulum.
The weight of the head mounted assembly (88 grams) did not cause any discomfort or strain in the surgeon's neck despite concerns raised by other researchers. The only limiting factor was found to be the battery life of the camera while recording high-definition videos which is less than 2 hours. This is usually not an issue in the case of arthroplasties as they tend to be rather short surgeries; however it is suggested to have the new additive second battery provided by GPRO Company, in case of a prolonged surgery.
A GoPro Hero3+ black edition camera (NASDAQ:GPRO Inc. San Mateo, CA) was used in a head mounted configuration to record over 200 orthopaedic surgeries. The setup was found extremely effective in capturing high-definition and undisturbed footage of the surgery from the best possible point of view which is that of the surgeon. The only limiting factor was found to be the battery life of the camera which is not a problem for Arthroplasty surgeries, but it is suggested to have the new additive second battery provided by GPRO Company, in case of a prolonged surgery.
Hamid Reza Seyyed Hosseinzadeh MD Orthopaedic surgeon, Associate professor, Shahid Beheshti Medical Univerity, Tehran, Iran Corresoponding Author firstname.lastname@example.org
Morad Karimpour PhD Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Dept. University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran email@example.com
Alisina Shahi MD Pstdoctrate Orthopaedic Research Fellow, Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, USA firstname.lastname@example.org
Acknowledgements: None declared.
Financial disclosure: None declared.
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