Title: Stature Estimation from Percutaneous Tibia Height: Study of Iranian Medical Students
Author(s): Ardeshir Sheikhazadi 1, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh 1, Tahmineh Mokhtari 1, Elham Sheikhazadi 2, Seyed Hossein Saberi Anary 3, Mohamad Qoreishy 4*
1 Tehran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran 2 Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran 3 Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran 4 Shahid Beheshti Medical University, Tehran, Iran
* Corresponding Author
Vol 2, Num 2, April 2015
Introduction:Height is important for individual identification. Body segments can be used for prediction of stature. In the present study, tibia height was used to estimate the stature.
Materials and Methods:A sample of 50 male and 50 female medical students of Medical school, aged between 20 to 25 years was chosen randomly. PCTL of right and left side were measured with spreading caliper. The simple regression analysis was statistically used to evaluate the relation between percutaneous tibia height and the stature height.
Results:The mean age of the subjects was 23.7±1.34 years. The mean tibia height of subjects was 37.4±3.1 cm and there were significant differences in tibia height of sex groups (P=0.0001). The correlation between the stature height and tibia height was significant in the population(r2=0.86, P=0.0001), males (r2=0.86, P=0.0001) and females(r2=0.71, P=0.0001).
Conclusion:According to the results of present study, there was a reliable relationship between percutaneous tibia height and the stature height and this reliability is more in the male group.
Keyword:Tibia, Height, Stature, Prediction, Orthopaedics, A.9
The stature, person height in the upright posture, is an inherent characteristic. It has important role in personal identification along with sex, age, and ancestry.[1-4] Personal height estimation is important in several conditions, such as, after a mass disaster, or genocide in archeology and forensic medicine, or for evaluation of nutritional status.[5-7]
Also, for long time, finding the dimensional relations between the body parts and the body was the interest of artists, archeologists, anthropologists, anatomists and medicolegistics. In anthropometric studies, it was shown that the body segments have relationship among themselves and with height. Hence, the anatomical and mathematical techniques were used for calculation of living stature.[10,11] Pearson (1899) was the first researcher who could estimate living stature from long bones of limb by regression formula. Linear regression models are widely used to find the relationships between body segments and whole body and predict the height of individuals according to their body parts.[13,14]
The relationship between body segments with height were evaluated for stature estimation in several studies, and their formulae have been driven mostly from long bones. In these studies, the degree of reliability and predictable value is widely varied.[1,7,15-19]
In different studies, relationships between stature and dimensions of various body segments were also established. This can help the forensic experts to estimate the stature from different segments of the body. Also, estimation of stature by percutaneous body measurements has been carried out.[5,20-22] In several studies, percutaneous tibia height was used to estimate the stature in different population, hence the results of these studies cannot be applied to other populations.[1,23-26]
In the present study, percutaneous tibia height was used to estimate the stature in Iranian population.
Materials and Methods
All measurements were taken from 100 volunteer subjects (50 males and 50 females), a sample from young Iranian medical students from Tehran University of Medical Sciences, in the year 2014. Age range was from 20 to 25 years. The height of the subjects was measured by a method described by Cameron et al. In all subjects, right tibia length was also measured from the upper border of the medial condyle to the tip of the medial malleolus, a method described by Martin et al. All measurements were performed by one person and using calibrated meter scales to reduce the inter-observal errors.
Data were collected for each sex and analyzed by SPSS version 22.0. Mean± Standard Deviation (SD) was used for descriptive data. T-test was used for evaluation of differences between groups. The correlation between height and tibia height was evaluated, and the simple linear regression model was used for describe the formula of the population.
The mean age of the subjects was 23.7±1.34 years. In this study 50 (50%) males and 50 (50%) females were evaluated. The mean height of subjects was 168.5±8.77 cm. The mean tibia height of subjects was 37.4±3.1 cm. There wasn't significant differences in the mean age of each sex groups (P=0.365). The height of males was 175.8±6.6 cm and of female cases was 162.1±4.9 cm. The percutaneous tibia length was 39.3±2.9 cm in male subjects and 35.5±2.01cm in female subjects. There were significant differences in the stature height and tibia height of sex groups (P=0.0001 and P=0.0001, respectively, Table 1).
The correlation between the stature height and tibia height was significant in the population(r=0.86, P=0.0001, fig 1), males (r=0.86, P=0.0001, fig 1) and females(r=0.71, P=0.0001, fig 1). For the stature estimation, the simple linear regression model was used and each formula was defined as follow:
Stature height = (Tibia height × X) + Y
(X = Independent variable Unstandardized Coefficients, Y = Constant value)
According to the results, three formulas were defined (SEE: standard error of estimation):
1. Stature height(total)= Tibia heigh×2.4+78 (R2=0.9, SEE=±0.14, P=0.0001)
2. Stature height (males)= Tibia heigh×2+97 (R2=81.1%, SEE=±0.22, P=0.0001)
3. Stature height (females)= Tibia heigh×1.4+110.8 (R2=63.2%, SEE=±0.31, P=0.0001)
Stature estimation requires special considerations in identification of cases with decomposed body. Present study was conducted on living Iranian young adults to estimate the correlation between percutaneous tibia height and stature height.
In the present study, the tibia length in males (39.3±2.9cm) was longer than female subjects (35.5±2.01cm). Also, the height of males (175.8±6.6 cm) was more than females (162.1±4.9cm). Trivedi et al. (2014) showed that the mean percutaneous tibia height was 38.24±2.343cm for male and 36.064±2.464cm for female in Gwalior Region. The mean height of tibia was greater in males  and the results of this study was similar to the results of our study. As well, these kinds of differences in body segments length of sex groups have been seen in other studies and confirm the sex differences in anthropological studies.[13,31-33]
In this study, simple linear regression was used to predict the stature from percutaneous tibia height in Iranian medical students. In the present study, the mean age of all subjects was 23.7±1.34 years. So, the sample group was selected from young age group and regression equation was related to mostly young subjects.
Pearson was the first person who could estimate stature of population through the regression equation. He could find the correlation between right side tibia length and stature in French cadaver. Gupta et al. (2014) could define the formulas for percutaneous length of tibia and stature height in living north Indian males. In their study, right and left sides were considered separately. They showed that “r” was same in the right and left side (r=0.75 ). In the present study, right tibia was considered, too.
Different populations need to estimate the stature specifically.[34,35] According to the results of present study, the percutaneous tibia height can be efficiently used for the stature estimation. Different formulas were driven for different sex groups. However, Correlation coefficients (r) of these formulas were higher in male cases (0.86 versus 0.71). In addition, Coefficient of determination (R2) was 81.1%, for males and 63.2% for females. These results showed that the formulae for stature estimation are more reliable in male subjects of Iranian young adults. Chavan et al. (2009) found a relationship between tibia percutaneous height and the stature height for Maharashtrian Population. In their study, estimated “r” for males was 0.82 and for females 0.68. In Bhavana and Surinder Nath (2007) study, r=0.765 was estimated for male cases. Agnihotri et al. (2009) could find the reliable relation between stature and tibia height (R2=81.4%) for Indo-Mauritian population. Also, Saini et al.(2013) could find the reliable formulas for stature estimation through the percutaneous tibia height in adult males (R2=96%) and females(R2=90.2%) of Rajasthan. The results of these studies were similar to the results of our study. However, in Trivedi et al. (2014) study, r=0.4342 was for male and r=0.6014 for female.
As well, Allbrook (1960) showed that there was no significant differences between stature obtained from the dried tibia and percutaneous tibial length in British male population.
In this research, SEE was ±0.22 for males and ±0.31 for females. These results showed that in two-third of subjects, the stature estimated from this equation will agree with the observed values within -0.22 and +0.22 for male cases and within -0.31 and +0.31 for female cases. Other studies were similar to the present study in the evaluation of this factor. According to the results of Chavan et al. (2009), SEE was 3.56 for males and 3.69 for females. Also, in Saini et al.(2013) study, SEE was 3.06 for males and 3.3 for females.
The result of present study showed that percutaneous tibia height is a reliable variable for stature estimation in young adult Iranian population. In addition, It can be a more reliable predictive factor for male subjects.
Ardeshir Sheikhazadi PhD Professor, Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical school, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Gholamreza Hassanzadeh PhD Professor, Department of Anatomy, Medical school, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Tahmineh Mokhtari PhD Department of Anatomy, Medical school, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Elham Sheikhazadi Researcher, Nursing & Midwifery School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
Seyyed Hossein Saberi Anary PhD Assistant Professor, Health Services Management, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Mohamad Qoreishy MD Orthopaedic surgeon, Assistant professor, Shahid Beheshti Medical University, Tehran, Iran firstname.lastname@example.org
Acknowledgements: None declared.
Financial disclosure: None declared.
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