Our Policy:

To respect the environment and forests, we will publish the JBS Journal online and provide no print version.

Information for Authors


The mission of the Joint and Bone Science Journal (JBS Journal) is the dissemination of knowledge to improve the care of patients with joint and bone disorders. The Joint and Bone Science Journal welcomes articles that contribute to Joint and Bone knowledge from all sources in all countries.

Manuscripts are evaluated by the editorial staff of The Journal and are sent to consultant reviewers. The time between receipt of a submitted manuscript and the initial decision regarding its publication has averaged four weeks, but it can be longer. Please read the information below and adhere to the following guidelines for authors before submitting your manuscript.

This journal offers authors to publish their research as Open Access:

  • Articles are freely available to the public with permitted reuse
  • An Open Access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder

All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY NC SA).

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC-BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published Open Access. The Open Access publication fee for this journal is $250 USD, excluding taxes.

- There is no fee for submission of articles

- There is no fee for invited articles

- Fees are waived where the first and corresponding author(s) are resident or student in their university and this is confirmed in writing from the university

We welcome the original articles in any subspecialty field of joint and bone science (Orthopaedics, Adult Rheumatology, Paediatric Rheumatology, Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Sport and Exercise Medicine, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Musculoskeletal Oncology, Musculoskeletal Bioengineering, Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Chiropractic, Orthotics and Nursing). The papers are provisionally assessed by members of the Editorial Board, then either accepted for publication or rejected by the Editor. The decision will usually take less than four weeks. Upon approval, each paper is then assessed by two Guest Reviewers with a special interest in the subject covered by the paper, and also by members of the editorial board. Controversial papers will be discussed at a full meeting of the Editorial Board.

Proofs of the edited paper and illustrations are emailed to the corresponding author for correction and to respond to any queries from the Editor.

The following types of manuscripts can be submitted for publication:

Joint and Bone crafted: Original essays or poetry that relate to the author's experience and insight as a Joint and Bone specialist. Restrict essays to 1,500 words and poetry to 40 lines.

The Joint and Bone in Art: Original, previously unpublished photographs of joint and bone represented in established works of art such as paintings, sculpture, stamps, and coins. Follow the standards of photography cited in the section on Figures. A legend of no more than 150 words should describe the work, its materials, creator, location, date of creation, and context.

History of Joint and Bone Science: Include a brief unstructured abstract, limit the manuscript length to 3,000 words, and follow the guidelines for original science submissions.

Surveys: Only by invitation from the Editor-in-Chief.

Research: Reports of data from original research, with up to 3500 words, although longer articles may occasionally be considered by the editors in special circumstances with extra publication fee. Original articles typically explore some explicit biological hypothesis or report original but substantial observations or data of broad utility.

Review: Comprehensive, authoritative, descriptions of any subject within the scope of the journal. These articles are written by opinion leaders that have been invited by the Editorial Board. Please note that review articles must not include more than 3 authors.
If you wish to submit a review article to The JBS Journal but have not explicitly received an invitation to do so, please complete the Review Article Proposal and email it to the editor-in-chief for consideration. We ask that you do not submit your unsolicited review article to the journal unless the editor-in-chief accepts your review topic.
The Current Concepts section is designed to provide review articles focusing on up-to-date information. Current Concepts authors are invited based upon their expertise. Unsolicited material is seldom considered, only after potential authors contact the editor-in-chief with a completed Proposal. Articles should be no more than 5,000 words.

Commentary: Short, focussed and opinionated articles on any subject within the scope of the journal. These articles are usually related to a contemporary issue, such as recent research findings, and are often written by opinion leaders that have been invited by the Editorial Board.

Case report: To be worthy of publication, a case report must have extraordinary teaching value to the readers. Typically we do not accept cases where 2 findings are associated since the findings are often coincidentally rather than causally related. Restrict the abstract to 150 words and highlight the unique features of the case. In sections identified as Introduction, Case Report, and Discussion and in fewer than 2000 words, introduce the topic, present the case, and discuss its novelty and educational value.

Perspective articles: These type of articles typically are arranged in the range of 500-2000 words. These manuscripts will explore controversial yet important themes, allowing expression of particular views or speculations, yet based on a solid understanding of published scientific information.

Short communications: These type of manuscripts are usually up to 2000 words, reporting preliminary observations, new interpretations of old data, simple new techniques or devices, or points of historical interest.

Review of books and media: The Journal publishes reviews of books and other media that will enlarge a reader's perspective even beyond specialty core knowledge and technical skills. Acceptable media include educational material in electronic formats, practice management software programs, and software applications for smart phones. For authors and publishers wishing to have a work reviewed, send 2 copies to editor-in-chief. We will not return material selected for review. We will return material not selected for review. We encourage readers to submit unsolicited reviews of books and media that they think would be of interest to other readers. Limit reviews to 1000 words and include the work's title, publisher, city, date of publication, and retail price. Such submissions will go through the same review and selection process as unsolicited scientific manuscripts.

Letters to the Editor: Letters to the editor are encouraged. They may be independent observations, or they may relate to a previously published article. Letters must not duplicate information submitted elsewhere for publication or previously published. Letters are subject to editing and abridgement without the author's review. Limit the body of the letter to 700 words, authors to 3, references to 5, and tables or figures to 1. We are more likely to publish a letter relating to a recently published article when we receive it promptly after the article is published. We will forward the letter to the author(s) for comment (maximum 700 words and 5 references). The policies regarding conflicts and disclosures for full manuscripts apply to letters as well.

Techniques articles: This type of manuscripts provides step-by-step details of various procedures (surgery, technique or instrument) relevant to Joint and Bone Science. Technique articles will be solicited from experts and are open for submission upon receipt of a Proposal. Interested authors should email their Proposal to the editor-in-chief. Articles should be no more than 5000 words.

Other material that can be published:

1. Announcements of relevant scientific meetings on Joint and Bone Science.

2. Announcements of employment opportunities.


General Policies

Articles are accepted only for exclusive publication in The Joint and Bone Science. Previously published articles are not accepted by The Journal, except for those published in non-English-language journals. Published articles and illustrations become the property of JBS Masters Center. Publication does not constitute official endorsement of opinions presented in articles.

A manuscript submitted to this journal can only be published if it (or a similar version) will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. A violation of this condition is considered fraud, and will be addressed by appropriate sanctions. Two manuscripts are considered similar if they concern the same hypothesis, question or goal, using the same methods and/or essentially similar data. The only exception is the previous publication of a manuscript in a non-English language journal.

Manuscripts accepted for publication are only published online at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief.

If the Editor-in-Chief of The Journal requests additional data forming the basis for the work, the authors will make the data available for examination in a timely fashion.

All clinical trials submitted for consideration (i.e., any clinical study in which patients are randomized into two treatment groups OR are followed prospectively to compare two different treatments) must have been approved by a university ethical committee.

All manuscripts dealing with the study of human subjects must include a statement that the subjects gave Informed Consent to participate in the study and that the study has been approved by an institutional review board or a similar committee. Please review our complete Ethics Policy for additional information before submitting your manuscript.

All manuscripts dealing with experimental results in animals must include a statement that the study has been approved by an animal utilization study committee. The authors should also include information about the management of postoperative pain for both animal and human subjects.

Particular care should be taken with obtaining consent where children are concerned (in particular where a child has special needs or learning disabilities), where an individual's head or face appears, or where reference is made to an individual's name or other personal details.

On occasion, reviewers, associate editors, and/or deputy editors may have a conflict of interest or a competing interest with regard to the subject matter of a manuscript. Such conflicts are disclosed to the Editor-in-Chief, who has no known conflicts of interest or competing interests, and who makes the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of all manuscripts submitted to The Journal.

What information to include with the manuscript

Having read the criteria for submissions, authors should specify in their letter of transmittal, whether they are submitting their work as an Surveys, Research, Review, Commentary, Case report, Perspective Articles, Short Communications, Book Reviews, Letters to the Editor.

Only papers not previously published will be accepted; each manuscript must be accompanied by a statement signed by all co-authors that the material within has not been and will not be submitted for publication elsewhere in English except as an abstract. Emphasis will be placed upon originality of concept and execution.

Submission of Manuscript

The Joint and Bone Science Journal uses a submission form that requires to be filled-in to begin the submission process.

To begin the submission process, the corresponding author must refer to the “Manuscript Submission” page. There are two forms that must be filled in: “Manuscript Information” and “Authors Information.

The “Manuscript Information Form” contains:

1- Full Title: Full title is the complete title of the manuscript that the authors want to appear on the first page of the article.

2- Running head: Please provide a short title of no greater than 45 characters, including spaces, for the running head.

3- Keywords: The authors must list at most 7 relevant keywords in alphabetical order the last of which must be the specialty that the manuscript belongs to. . Use American spelling and avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes. Beside that, the authors must mention as many as the following codes relevant to the manuscript. These codes help the Journal Team to classify the articles under subspecialties correctly. The Specialties and Subspecialties and their codes are provided at the end of this file.

4- Corresponding Author: The authors must specify the corresponding author’ name out of the authors’ names.

5- Abstract: The authors must provide the whole abstract here.

6- Additional Information: If there is any additional information that authors think would be necessary for the Editor-in-Chief, they can be provided here.

Upon completion and submission of this form, the author is directed to the second form, which is “Authors Information” and contains the following parts for each author (at most six):

1- Full Title: Full title is the complete title of the manuscript that the authors want to appear on the first page of the article.

2- First name:

3- Last Name

4- Scientific Degree: Include the authors' highest academic degrees, both abbreviated and spelled out (maximum two). Exclude professional certifications such as CHT, RN, and RPT. The sequence of the authors' degrees is of the authors' choosing.

5- Affiliation: Present the authors' affiliation addresses where the actual work was done. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name.

6- E-mail: Provide a valid email for each author via that the Journal Team can reach out them.

7- Telephone number: Provide the country code (+ or 00) plus area code and the phone number.

8- Address: Please present a valid postal address for each author.

9- City and Country: The city and country relevant to the address above must be provided.

These information must be provided for each author separately.

Upon completing these two forms, the Editor-in-Chief in collaboration with editorial board will assess your manuscript and if it suits the JBS Journal, the corresponding author will be informed that the manuscript has been whether accepted or rejected or publication in JBS Journal. Then your manuscript will be handled to at least two guest editors to assess it and when it is finally approved for publication, you must refer to the “Forms” page and download the relevant forms and fill them in and scan and resend them to “submit@jbsjournal.org".

Blinded Manuscript: The Journal has a policy of double-blinded peer review. The manuscript must not contain any mention of the authors' names or initials or the institution at which the study was done. Note that, as a result of this policy, self-citation references will NOT be available to reviewers if the authors can be identified as contributors to the current study. Thus, authors should not depend on self-citation references to provide reviewers with background information.

Copyright Transfer and Author Agreement: Material appearing in The Journal is covered by copyright. All authors must sign a "JBS Journal Assignment of Publication Rights Form". Electronic signatures are not acceptable. The form must reference the manuscript title and identify the corresponding author. Completed (signed) forms should be scanned and submitted via e-mail in PDF format.

Potential Conflict of Interest Statement: Authors must complete an "ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest" at the time of submission of each manuscript. This Form must be sent to the "contact@jbsjournal.org" upon submission. The form must reference the manuscript title and corresponding author. This statement has no bearing on the editorial decision to publish a manuscript. That decision will continue to be based solely on the value of the article to the readers of The Journal. No article will be published until the completed conflict of interest form has been incorporated into the record kept on that manuscript in The Journal office. Sources of funding should also be disclosed in the manuscript text at the end of the Manuscript.

IRB Approval: A copy of the letter granting approval from the institutional review board or the animal utilization study committee is required.

Permission to Use Illustrations or Tables Owned by Another Party: When the use of illustrations that have been published elsewhere is deemed essential, the author must provide a full citation for the previous publication in the figure legend. The author is also required to:

Provide a letter from the owner of the copyright granting permission for The Journal to reprint the copyrighted material, or

Using this form, provide The Journal with the date when permission was requested and the approximate date when the permission is expected to be received. All authors are responsible for obtaining the appropriate permissions for their work.

Patient Photo Permissions: Authors must grant The Journal unlimited license to use the photos of their patients online and complete the “JBS Journal Assignments of Patient Photo Rights Form”.

Video Permissions: Authors are permitted to maintain the copyright of any videos that are included with the submission. However, authors must grant The Journal unlimited license to use the video online and complete the "JBS Journal Assignments of Video Publication Rights Form".

Submission Fee: A submission fee of $250 is due at the time of submission for unsolicited scientific (Clinical and Research) manuscripts. Waivers are available in some circumstances.

The following items are optional on submission:

1- Cover Letter

2- Acknowledgment: If included, this item must be attached as a separate file, not included in the text of the manuscript.

3- Tables: Including the tables in the manuscript is optional but if included, must be labeled individually and submitted as separate electronic files. Tables should be submitted in their original file format (Word or Excel) and not as graphics files.

4- Figures: Including the figures in the manuscript is optional but if included, must be submitted electronically in TIFF format. A maximum of 10 figures can be submitted. Each figure must be labeled separately and submitted as separate, sequential electronic files. The file name for each figure should correspond to the figure number in the figure legend (e.g., Fig_1.tiff, Fig_2.tiff, etc.).

5- Audio, Video, and Other Multimedia Material: Short video clips, audio files, and other multimedia material are strongly encouraged.

Preparation of Manuscript

All publications will be in English. Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these).

Authors whose 'first' language is not English should arrange for their manuscripts to be written in idiomatic English before submission.

Authors should bear in mind that readers potentially include scientists from various disciplines. Abstracts, introductions and discussions should be in relatively non-specialized language so that a broad joint and bone science audience may understand them. Discussions should include an appropriate synthesis of relevant literature for those not intimately familiar with the specific field. Implications for other fields should be noted.

Scientific articles should consist of:

1- Structured Abstract: A structured abstract of no more than 325 words, consisting of five paragraphs, with the headings Introduction (which states the primary research question), Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, and Level of Evidence (for clinical articles). For the Level of Evidence section, describe the study type and assign a level-of-evidence rating to the primary research question, according to the criteria in the Level of Evidence Table.

2- The body should consist of:

Introduction: State the problem that led to the study, including a concise review of only the relevant literature. State your hypothesis and the purpose of the study. It is preferable that this be done in the form of a research question that describes the setting of the study, the population or sample studied, and the primary outcome measure.

Materials and Methods: Describe the study design in detail using standard methodological terms, such as retrospective or prospective cohort study, prospective randomized trial, case-control study, cross-sectional study, etc. Submissions reporting cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies should conform to the format suggested by the STROBE panel (http://www.strobe-statement.org). Reporting of all study designs should include information about the sample, including how it was assembled and how inclusions and exclusions were identified. State how the sample size was determined. If a sample of convenience was utilized, this should be stated. If sample size was estimated on the basis of assumptions about the primary outcome measure, these should also be described in detail.

All randomized controlled trials submitted for publication in the Journal should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart. Trials must register in a public trials registry at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g. phase I trials) would be exempt.

The Journal reserves the designation of "meta-analysis" for reviews of three or more articles with Level I and II evidence only. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses must include a description of the sources of data used for the study. Reporting of meta-analyses should conform to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement criteria. These are available at http://www.prisma-statement.org/.

Methods used for study selection, data extraction, and data synthesis must be described succinctly but with sufficient detail that the general approach used could be replicated. Statistical methods should be described in detail, with particular emphasis on the statistical strategy that was used to analyze the data. The most appropriate strategy is that which fits the data that were collected and addresses the research question or hypothesis stated in the Introduction. In most circumstances, this should have been established before the study was undertaken. Justification for complex statistical strategies, including those involving any kind of modeling approach, should be described in detail. It is especially important to identify any assumptions about the data that are implicit to the statistical strategy. In the analysis of categorical data, utilize exact methods wherever possible. Where the variable of interest cannot be assumed to have a normal distribution, use non-parametric methods of analysis.

For hypothesis testing scenarios the statement "no significant difference was found between two groups" must be accompanied by a value describing the power of the study to detect a Type-II error.

P values are required to support any statement indicating a significant difference. Meta-analyses must include a description of how data were pooled and the details of any sensitivity analyses that were performed. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals are required for any estimate appearing in the text or graphs. Use of the word correlation requires reporting of the correlation coefficient.

Results: Provide a detailed report on the data obtained during the study. Results of many reconstructive procedures, such as total joint arthroplasty, obtained after less than two years of follow-up are rarely accepted. An average of two years of follow-up is generally not sufficient. All patients in these studies should have at least two years of follow-up, although shorter follow-up periods may be acceptable within an appropriate context. The Editor will make a final decision on the adequacy of follow-up reported in all submissions. All measurements should be expressed using conventional terms with SI (Système International d'Unités) units in parentheses.

Discussion: Be succinct. What does your study show? Is your hypothesis affirmed or refuted? Discuss the importance of this article with regard to the relevant world literature; a complete literature review is unnecessary. Analyze your data and discuss their strengths, their weaknesses, and the limitations of the study.

3- Source of Funding: Under the heading Source of Funding, explain the role of the funding source for the study. If there was no external funding source, or if the funding source did not play a role in the investigation, that should be stated.

4- Acknowledgments: Acknowledgments should be included prior to the References. Include external sources of support.

5- References: The full references should be collected in a separate section at the end of the paper in the following forms (The Journal of Arthroplasty reference format). The references should be numbered according to the order of citation in the text (not alphabetically). Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full.

All key references related to methods must be from published materials; submitted manuscripts, research reports, or theses which would be unavailable to readers should be avoided. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. Abstracts or meeting transactions more than three years old should not be cited.

Citation in text: Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full.

Web references: As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given.

Reference formatting: The referencing should include author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. The references should be arranged according to the following examples:

Reference style:

Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.

List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

Reference to a journal publication:
[1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.
Reference to a book:
[2] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[3] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors.
Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 4 authors the first 4 should be listed followed by et al.

Journal abbreviations source:
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations:

Points that should be considered in preparing the manuscript

1- The text should be ready for setting in type and should be carefully checked for errors prior to submission. Scripts should be typed double-spaced.

2- If an abbreviation or acronym appears more than 3 times in the abstract or more than 3 times in the article, spell out an abbreviation or acronym the first time it is used, followed by the shortened version in parentheses. Spell out all abbreviations and acronyms at the beginning of sentences.

3- Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

4- Use generic names. You may cite proprietary names in parentheses along with the name and location of the manufacturer.

5- Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with a superscript symbol, not letters. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Double-space table data. Each table should be on a separate page. Tabular material must be formatted using Microsoft Word's table-building functions, using cells, rows, and columns. Any author-created acronyms or other nonstandard abbreviations must be defined in a table footnote.

6- All illustrations should accompany the typescript, but not be inserted in the text. Refer to photographs, charts, and diagrams as 'figures' and number consecutively in order of appearance in the text. Substantive captions for each figure explaining the major point or points should be typed on a separate sheet.

Illustrations accompanying your manuscript must be submitted electronically and be in TIFF format. Do not embed images into other software programs. No more than ten images may be submitted.

Any digital manipulation of an image—color, contrast, brightness, etc.—must be applied to the entire image and may not result in misrepresentation of the original image. Enhancement or alteration of part of an image, without clear and explicit disclosure in the legend, is unacceptable.

Image files should be named using the number of the figure (e.g., Figure1.tif, Figure2.tif, etc.). When completing the online submission form, remember to enter the name and number of the figure (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.) into the "description" field. This description should match the figure file name.

Color images must be RGB (not CMYK). We cannot alter or vouch for the quality of color reproductions.

Remove any writing that could identify the patient (e.g., names, initials, patient numbers).

When using a digital camera to create your images, if possible, set the camera to save in TIFF format (not JPEG), set the resolution to a minimum of 300 ppi (pixels per inch), and set the size of the image to 5 × 7 in (127 × 178 mm).

The resolution of your electronic images is critical and is directly linked to how well they will appear when printed. Color and grayscale images, such as radiographs, must have a minimum resolution of 300 ppi, and line-art drawings must have a minimum resolution of 1200 ppi. An original image size of 5 × 7 in (127 × 178 mm) is preferred.

7- Videos also may be submitted in one of the following file formats: avi, mov, mp4, mpeg, mpg, or wmv. Instructions for upload can be found here.

Supplementary Material

The JBS Journal accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, movies, animation sequences, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please ensure that data is provided in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file.


1- All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. A letter of transmittal should be included stating this and that each of the authors has read and concurs with the content in the manuscript.

2- All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in an acknowledgments section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

3- If a research group is designated as the author of an article, choose one of the following three options:

A. List one or more group members who fully meet the above criteria for authorship in the article's byline, followed by "on behalf of the [name of group]." If other group members meet the authorship criteria, list them in a footnote on the title page. Those authors will be searchable in PubMed.

B. List only the name of the group. If all group members meet the authorship criteria, list them in a footnote on the title page. Those authors will be searchable in PubMed.

C. List the group members who fully meet the above criteria for authorship in the article's byline. List the other members of the group, who do not meet the authorship criteria, in an acknowledgment footnote. Those authors will NOT be searchable in PubMed.

4- At the end of the text, under a subheading "Conflict of interest statement" all authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.

5- All sources of funding should be declared as an acknowledgment at the end of the text. Authors should declare the role of study sponsors, if any, in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, the authors should so state.

Changes to Authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:

Before the accepted manuscript is published in an issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Editor-in-Chief from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: publication of the accepted manuscript in an issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.

After the accepted manuscript is published in an issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

Review and Publication Process

1- You will receive an acknowledgment of receipt of the manuscript.

2- Submitted manuscripts will be reviewed first by the editor-in-chief. Upon approval by the editor-in-chief, the manuscript will be referred to selected reviewers and subsequently, the author will be informed of editorial decisions based on the reviewers' comments, as soon as possible, usually within four weeks. As a rule, manuscripts and photographs, or other material you have submitted will not be returned to you with the decision letter, only the reviewers' comments will be included.

3- If your manuscript was conditionally accepted, you must return your revision with a separate sheet, addressing all the reviewers' comments, and explaining how you dealt with them.

4- When returning the revised manuscript to the Editorial Office, make sure that the manuscript number, the revision number (Rev. 1,2,3. . ) and the designation Original/Copy are clearly typed on the top of the title pages of the original manuscript and all copies.

5- When the final version of the manuscript is accepted, the corresponding author will be notified of acceptance and the manuscript will be forwarded to production.

6- Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to sign a "Journal Publishing Agreement". Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail (or letter) will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article.

7- One set of page proofs in PDF format will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Therefore, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that The JBS Journal may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

8- After publication, the corresponding author will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image.

Data Access and Retention

Authors may be asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data if practicable, and should in any event be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

A conflict of interest may exist when an author or the author's institution has a financial or other relationship with other people or organizations that may inappropriately influence the author's work. A conflict can be actual or potential, and full disclosure to the journal is the safest course. All submissions must include disclosure of all relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. The journal may use such information as a basis for editorial decisions and may publish such disclosures if they are believed to be important to readers in judging the manuscript. A decision may be made by the journal not to publish on the basis of the declared conflict. At the end of the text, under a subheading 'Disclosure Statement', all authors must disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three (3) years of beginning the work submitted that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work.

Examples of potential conflicts of interest which should be disclosed include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Potential conflicts of interest should be disclosed at the earliest stage possible.

All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed. This declaration (with the heading 'Role of the funding source') should be made in a separate section of the text and placed before the References. Authors must described the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication.

Fundamental Errors in Published Works

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author's obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper. If the editor or the publisher learns from a third party that a published work contains a significant error, it is the obligation of the author to promptly retract or correct the paper or provide evidence to the editor of the correctness of the original paper.

Embargo Policy for Accepted Manuscript

Information concerning or contained in your article cannot be discussed with the media, published, broadcast, posted online, or otherwise placed in the public domain until after the publication date of the issue. It is your responsibility to ensure that all coauthors are aware of this policy.

Specialties and Subspecialties Codes

To view the JBS Journal Codes for Specialties and Subspecialties, Please refer to The PDF File of Information for Authors