Occupational Therapy

Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and treatment to develop, recover, or maintain the daily living and work skills of people with a physical, mental, or cognitive disorder. OTs also focus much of their work on identifying and eliminating environmental barriers to independence and participation in daily activities. Occupational therapy is a client-centered practice that places emphasis on the progress towards the client's goals. Occupational therapy interventions focus on adapting the environment, modifying the task, teaching the skill, and educating the client/family in order to increase participation in and performance of daily activities, particularly those that are meaningful to the client. Occupational therapists often work closely with professionals in physical therapy, speech therapy, nursing, social work, and the community.

Areas of occupation

The American Occupational Therapy Association's practice framework identifies the following areas of occupation:

1) Activities of daily living (ADLs)

- Bathing, showering

- Toileting and toilet hygiene

- Dressing

- Swallowing/eating

- Feeding

- Functional mobility

- Personal device care

- Personal hygiene and grooming

- Sexual activity

2) Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)

- Care of others

- Care of pets

- Child rearing

- Communication management

- Driving and community mobility

- Financial management

- Health management and maintenance

- Home establishment and managements

- Meal preparation and cleanup

- Religious and spiritual activities and expression

- Safety and emergency maintenance

- Shopping

3) Rest and sleep

- Rest

- Sleep preparation

- Sleep participation

4) Education

5) Work

- Employment interests and pursuits

- Employment seeking and acquisition

- Job performance

- Retirement preparation and adjustment

- Volunteer exploration

- Volunteer participation

6) Play

- Play exploration

- Play participation

7) Leisure

- Leisure exploration

- Leisure participation

8) Social participation

- Community

- Family

- Peer, friend